Supported Employment Articles

The Alberta Association for Supported Employment recognizes the need for relevant information, materials, and resources on supported employment topics. As our website develops, this page will expand to list articles on a variety of supported employment topics with abstracts and citations for each one.

Supported Employment Topics

To obtain any of the following articles, you may visit the VRRI Tighe Resource Centre.

Behaviour Therapy | Social Skills Training | Self-Management

Self-Management And Social Skills Training For Persons With Developmental Disabilities: Tools For The Rehabilitation Counselor To Facilitate Success In Community Settings: A Literature Review Persons with Developmental Disabilities often have problems with self-management and social skills. These topics are the focus of this article, which reviews several behaviour therapy tools with regard to self-management and social skills training outcomes.
Anctil, T., & Degeneffe, C. (2003). Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 34(1), 17-24.

Challenging Behaviour | Behaviour Intervention Model

Supporting Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour in Integrated Work Settings: An Overview and a Model for Service Provision

This article traces how the concept of supported employment developed over time, from deinstitutionalization, community integration, and normalization to the terminology of supported employment today: job coaching, functional analysis, and natural supports. The authors define challenging behaviour, outline the roles of job coaches in supported employment, and briefly describe a new model for behaviour intervention. Based on previous field research, this model is a multicomponent intervention approach to dealing with challenging behaviour in integrated work settings.

Stevens, P., and N. Martin. "Supporting Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour in Integrated Work Settings: An Overview and a Model for Service Provision." Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 43.1 (1999): 19-29.

Adults with Challenging Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour in Supported Employment: Initial Findings

Beginning with a brief discussion of the evolution of supported employment innovations, this article analyzes a pilot study of intervention methods for individuals with challenging behaviour in supported employment, and concentrates on the outcomes for these individuals. The study used functional analysis, work skills/preferences assessment, task analysis, and job matching to place three adult participants with challenging behaviour, and found that all three had positive outcome measures in terms of increased productivity and reduced verbal prompting during task completion.

Martin, Neil, Gayle Johnston, and Peter Stevens. "Adults with Challenging Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour in Supported Employment: Initial Findings." Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 12.2 (1999): 149-156.

Problem Social Behavior in the Workplace: An Analysis of Social Behavior Problems in a Supported Employment Setting

This article analyzes the result of problem social behaviour on job retention, focusing on social skills that either directly or indirectly relate to job performance, e.g., task-related vs. personal social competencies. The authors incorporated job-training log analysis with two recently-developed measurement scales (PIRMA and PRMA-S) and discovered that of the 43 individuals sampled, 58% (25 of 43) had experienced multiple interpersonal difficulties on the job and that 40% of those interpersonal difficulties were related to sexuality. The article further discusses the implications and possible interventions to reduce job termination.

Reitman, David, Ronald S. Drabman, Lynda V. Speaks, Sherrel Burkley, Paula C. Rhode. "Problem Social Behavior in the Workplace: An Analysis of Social Behavior Problems in a Supported Employment Setting." Research in Developmental Disabilities. 20.3 (1999): 215-228.

Understanding Challenging Behaviors: A Primer for Employment Specialists, Part I

Behaviour is the most commonly cited reason for the unemployment of individuals with significant disabilities. Authors Cary Griffin and Dave Hammis provide a different aspect of behaviour-that of adaptive behaviour strategies. The strategies highlighted include behaviour management and positive behaviour support.

Griffin , C., & Hammis, D. (2003). Job Training and Placement Report, 27(1), insert.  

Understanding Challenging Behaviors: A Primer for Employment Specialists, Part 2

Continuing their discussion of challenging behaviour, authors Griffin and Hammis' second focus is on the role of functional analysis on understanding specific individuals' behaviour. The authors provide a description of functional analysis as it applies to determining the meaning and purpose of a behaviour and outline one other tool for assessing behaviour, the Behaviour Hypothesis Matrix or BME. The article includes a BME table to illustrate its usefulness.

Griffin , C., & Hammis, D. (2003). Job Training and Placement Report, 27(2), insert.

Customized Employment | Reasonable Accommodation

Employment: From Competitive to Customized

This article contrasts the two faces of the supported employment coin; concerns of supported employers (accommodation) and concerns of supported employment applicants (workplace integration and job retention). Callahan provides an alternative to applicants' 'legal entitlement' stance, and suggests that customized employment could be the answer for both camps. This article discusses how specific employment proposals (which identify and match their specific skills to employers' specific needs) can improve applicants' employment outcomes.

Callahand, Michael. "Employment: From Competitive to Customized." TASH Connections. 28.9 (2002): 16-19.

Discrimination | International Development Organizations

Including Disabled People in Poverty Reduction Work: "Nothing About Us, Without Us"

Yeo et al. propose that persons with disabilities are excluded from international development organizations and research-and that such exclusion reinforces the poverty of these individuals within our global society. Sections of the article discuss (1) the relation between impairment or disability and chronic poverty, (2) how disabled people are excluded from international development policy, practice and research, and (3) how various institutions are challenging these exclusionary practices.

Yeo, Rebecca, Karen Moore. "Including Disabled People in Poverty Reduction Work: "Nothing About Us, Without Us." World Development. 31.3 (2003): 571-590.

Employee Integration

Integrated Employment: If Not Now, When? If Not Us, Who?new

The article comments on a study of competitively employed individuals with significant disabilities. The study followed 50 people with developmental disabilities for 20 years and their work histories are chronicled. All of these individuals were eligible for Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Income, implying their significant disabilities. Some of the key points that stood out upon reviewing the paper are listed, such as the comments and insights made on job coach intervention and the importance of competitive employment for social integration opportunity.

P. Wehman. "Integrated Employment: If Not Now, When? If Not Us, Who?" Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities. Vol. 31, No. 2, (2006): 122-126

The Quest for Ordinary Lives: The Integrated Post-School Vocational Functioning of 50 Workers With Significant Disabilitiesnew

The article comments on a study of competitively employed individuals with significant disabilities. The study followed 50 people with developmental disabilities for 20 years and their work histories are chronicled. All of these individuals were eligible for Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Income, implying their significant disabilities. Some of the key points that stood out upon reviewing the paper are listed, such as the comments and insights made on job coach intervention and the importance of competitive employment for social integration opportunity.

L. Brown, et al. "The Quest for Ordinary Lives: The Integrated Post-School Vocational Functioning of 50 Workers With Significant Disabilities" Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities. Vol. 31, No. 2, (2006): 93-121

Work Status and Work Performance of People With Disabilities: An Empirical Studynew

As the U.S. economy is thrust into the global economy and meets global economic competition, the country needs to mobilize people with disabilities to participate in the labor force and enable them to work and earn money optimally. Therefore, it is important to investigate the extent to which disability affects the employment rate and the levels of hourly wages and monthly earnings. This article presents the results of a study that investigated the net effect of disability on the work performance of adults. The specific areas of investigation were employment rate, monthly earnings, hourly wages, and hours of work per week. The major findings were that both statistically and substantively, the rate of employment and the level of monthly earnings of people with disabilities are significantly lower, controlling for other variables. Policy implications are discussed.

M. N. Ozawa, et al. Journal of Disability Policy Studies. Vol. 17, No. 3, (2006): 180-190

Identifying Job Opportunities For Individuals With Disabilitiesnew

There are some basic principles and steps that are helpful to follow for finding jobs for individuals with disabilities and for negotiating customized employment positions. The first step in customizing opportunities for individuals with disabilities includes knowing the interests and skills of the job seekers. The next step is being able to identify with employers the specific needs of the workplace. This article provides some questions and answers providing information on how to negotiate customized jobs with employers.

K. Inge, et al. "Identifying Job Opportunities For Individuals With Disabilities" Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. Vol. 25, No. 2, (2006): 137-139

The Meaning of Belonging at Work is Important to Supported Employees: Inclusion, Belonging and Community Membership

Author Al Condeluci defines community membership, the meaning behind this concept, and the value of inclusion and membership and their impact on our lives and the lives of persons with developmental disabilities.

Condeluci, Al. "The Meaning of Belonging at Work is Important to Supported Employees: Inclusion, Belonging and Community Membership." Supported Employment Infolines. 13.7 (2002): 4-5.

Strategies for Increasing Interactions in Supported Employment Settings: An Updated Review

Keith Storey's article investigates the key outcome for supported employment-the integration of workers with disabilities. This article reviews other research that was designed to increase inclusion and employee integration, highlights specific interventions used within those previous studies, and provides recommendations for further research on increasing supported employee integration.

Storey, Keith. "Strategies for Increasing Interactions in Supported Employment Settings: An Updated Review." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 17.4 (2002): 231-237.

Employer Benefits of Supported Employment  

New Study: Employers Find Greater Benefits than Costs When Employing Workers with Disabilities

A recent Australian study is the focus of this article. The study looked at employer outcomes of employing persons with disabilities and discovered positive feedback.

(2003). Supported Employment InfoLines, 14(3), 1, 6.

Interview Etiquette | Employer Guidelines

Interviewing Courtesies for Effective Communication

This article provides employers with several useful tips for interviewing applicants with commonly-encountered cognitive or physical disabilities, such as, individuals with mobility aids, individuals with vision impairments, individuals with speech impairments, and individuals who are deaf or hearing impaired.

"Interviewing Courtesies for Effective Communication." Job Training & Placement Report. 26.9 (2002): 7.

Job Coaching | Job Retention | Follow-up Services

Supported Employee Independence from the Presence of Job Coaches at Work Sites

This study explores supported employee independence from job coaches and how this independence impacts job retention. Researchers examine the relationship between job coach presence and demographic variables, and the impact of these variables on job coach involvement and job retention within this time period.

Cimera, Robert E., Frank R. Rusch, and Laird W. Heal. "Supported Employee Independence from the Presence of Job Coaches at Work Sites." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 10.1 (1998).

Reducing Individualized Job Coach Assistance Provided to Persons With Multiple Severe Disabilities in Supported Work

This study seeks to determine the impact of reducing job coach assistance on work opportunities for persons with multiple, severe disabilities. After conducting initial job-task observations, researchers implement two initial strategies to determine the impact of job coach reduction: first, they provide further instruction (task training) for each job step. Second, they modify the working environment to compensate for workers' physical limitations. The researchers then remove job coaches from the worksite to observe any impact on job performance.

Parsons, Marsha B., Dennis H. Reid, Carolyn W. Green, and Leah B. Browning. "Reducing Individualized Job Coach Assistance Provided to Persons With Multiple Severe Disabilities in Supported Work." Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 24.4 (1999): 292-297.

The Relationship Continues: Post-Placement Services a Success

Follow-up or post-placement supports are the focus of this article, which provides specific examples of performance-based, goal-oriented planning scenarios for job developers.

(2003). Job Training and Placement Report, 27(8), 1-2, 8.

Job Development | Time Management  

Job Development Tip: Good Time-Management Needed for Job Developing

Authors Hoff, Gold and Jordan discuss the importance of skills and time management in job development performance. The provide percentages of time the average job developer spends on true job developing and stress the importance of making a dedicated effort to schedule time for this important aspect of the career. The authors also provide several useful tips on how to devote more time and use time effectively to help persons with disabilities find jobs.

Hoff, D., Gandolfo, C., Gold, M., & Jordan , M. (2003). Supported Employment InfoLines, 14(2), 1, 4.

Job Development

Job Development Tip: Are You Ready For That Big Job Development Meeting?: Here's a 10-step Checklist

This article provides a checklist for job developers to help them prepare for job development meetings, such as, what and how to research the employer, how to dress, how to respond to employer concerns, plus several more valuable tips.

"Job Development Tip: Are You Ready For That Big Job Development Meeting?: Here's a 10-step Checklist." Supported Employment Infolines. 13.2 (2002): 1.

Job Development Tools | Presentation Portfolios

Presentation Portfolios

Presentation portfolios as job development tools are the focus of this article. Mast et al. propose that presentation portfolios are an effective strategy for representing applicants' strengths and contributions, and outline a number of portfolio designs. The article includes initial field-test data that provide evidence for the effectiveness of this potential job development tool.

Mast, Melinda, Joan Sweeney, and Michael West. "Presentation Portfolios." Job Training & Placement Report. 26.9 (2002): 1-3.

Marketing | Job Development | Strategic Alliances

From The Horse's Mouth: Top 5 Employer Suggestions for Marketing SE

At only five succinct points long, this tip sheet summarizes advice from employers on what they want to hear from supported employment marketers/job developers.

(2002) Job Training and Placement Report, 26(12), 8.

Employer Contacts

Jim Humes provides a discussion of making contact with employers and marketing your client's services. Humes discusses the need for job developers to sell themselves first, their organization second and, finally, the concept of hiring persons with disabilities. He also highlights Arkansas' Rehabilitation Continuation Education Center's Certificate in Employment Services program, which specifically teaches job developers how to make contact with employers.

Humes, J. (2001). Job Training and Placement Report, 25(12), 5.

The first 90 seconds.

This article discusses the roles of both job developer and employer in the event of an interview, with focus on the importance of quickly establishing personal credibility and convincing employers that your client has something to offer.

Fagan, P. (2001). Job Training and Placement Report, 26(1), 5.

Economic Development Approaches to Securing Employment for Persons with Disabilities

Author Dennis Gerron highlights an interesting new approach to marketing: forming strategic alliances with reciprocal marketing. Gerron explains how any company can switch from having to convince employers to hire consumers, to becoming "business consultants helping employers solve their bottom-line cash flow problems."

Gerron, D. (2003). Job Training and Placement Report, 27(1), 1-3.

Mental Illness | Supported Employment

A Scale to Measure Quality of Supported Employment for Persons with Severe Mental Illness

This article compares two fidelity scales, the Quality of Supported Employment Implementation Scale (QSEIS) and the Individual Placement and Support Fidelity Scale (IPFS), for measuring quality of support for persons with severe mental illness. The study revealed that the newer scale (QSEIS) was psychometrically adequate to measure such factors as job placement, integration with mental health treatment, long-term support, teamwork and engagement.

Bond, G. R., Campbell, K., Evans, L. J., Gervey, R., Pascaris, A., Tice, S., Del Bene, D., & Revell, G. (2002). Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 17(4), 239-250.  

Managing Psychiatric Symptoms in Supported Employment: Supporting People with Mental Illness in the Workplace

Author Katie Cissell offers several useful strategies for managing such psychiatric symptoms as socially unacceptable behaviour, secondary illness, such as alcoholism, positive and negative symptoms (e.g. schizophrenic symptoms which are 'added on' to the personality and symptoms which take something away from the individual, e.g., isolation, withdrawal, respectively), and personality disorders.

Cissell, K. (2002). Supported Employment InfoLines, 13(10), 4-5.

Natural Supports | Consultation | Workplace Integration

Co-Workers Can Be Problem Solvers

This article describes a particular situation where coworkers were able to discourage unproductive socializing through positive actions.

(2003). Supported Employment InfoLines, 14(5), 4.

Moving from Job Coaching to Employer Consultation: Consulting with Co-Workers to Assist Workers with Disabilities

Authors DiLeo and Hagner compare the roles of supported employment professionals to business consultants and offer some useful tips on fostering natural supports, such as how to involve co-workers in the process.

DiLeo, D., & Hagner, D. (2003). Supported Employment InfoLines, 14(5), 4.

Social Integration in the Workplace for People with Disabilities: An Australian Perspective

The premise of this study was to determine whether "employment success for people with disabilities is closely related to the degree to which they are physically and socially integrated into the work environment." The findings show that persons with disabilities were considered "valued members of the workforce." The article also discusses the positive effect of open, inclusive employment situations.

Riches, V. C., & Green, V. A. (2003). Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 19(3), 127-142.

Natural Support Intervention | Employment Supports  

A Review of Research on Natural Support Interventions in the Workplace for People with Disabilities

Author Keith Storey offers several guidelines for job developers to implement natural supports and increase integration in the workplace for persons with disabilities.

Storey, K. (2003). International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 26(2), 79-84.

Public Perception | Workplace Integration

The Assessment of Attitudes Toward Individuals with Disabilities in the Workplace

Supported by previous research, which indicates that the successful integration of persons with disabilities in the workplace hinges on the attitudes of their co-workers, the authors conducted two studies to measure or assess perception of disability. The studies used a multicomponent conceptualization of attitudes to identify disability beliefs. The article further outlines the researchers' findings and discusses implications of the findings with regard to background knowledge of disability, gender differences, work experience, and response patterns.

Popovich, Paula M., A. Charles, Karen L. Scherbaum, Natale Polinko. "The Assessment of Attitudes Toward Individuals with Disabilities in the Workplace." Journal of Psychology. 137.2 (2003): 163-174.

Staff Training | Coaching Staff

Igniting the Spirit of Employment Services by Coaching Staff: Coaching Plus Training Increases Productivity by 88%

This article examines a variety of training approaches, such as, performance-based coaching, co-worker coaching, group coaching, and manager coaching. Author Katherine Carol discusses the benefits of effective training, including improved job productivity, performance, and job satisfaction-the vision and the reality.

Carol, Katherine. "Igniting the Spirit of Employment Services by Coaching Staff: Coaching Plus Training Increases Productivity by 88%." Supported Employment Infolines. 13.3 (2002): 4-5.

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Copyright disclaimer: All articles listed above fall under the protection of Canadian, United States of America , and International copyright laws. Anyone who plagiarises or sells these articles risks prosecution according to these laws.